Call for tender for cooperation

VON Dr. Wolf SiegertZUM Montag Letzte Bearbeitung: 16. Januar 2015 um 14 Uhr 19 Minuten

 

Es gibt Tage, da sagen Links mehr als tausend Worte.

Dieser Link d(ies)es Tages lautet:

Willkommen
auf der Beta-Webseite des Instituts für Internet und Gesellschaft

Dort ist zu lesen:

Das Internet und zugehörige neue Technologien bringt eine Vielzahl von Möglichkeiten aber auch von Herausforderungen für die Entwicklung unserer Gesellschaft mit sich. Wie von Eric Schmidt am 16. Februar 2011 angekündigt bereiten wir die Gründung eines Forschungsinstitutes vor, welches sich der transdisziplinären Forschung zu Fragen des Internets und der Informationsgesellschaft widmen soll.

Getragen von der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, der Universität der Künste in Berlin sowie des Wissenschaftszentrums Berlin für Sozialforschung und in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Hans-Bredow-Institut in Hamburg will das sich in Gründung befindende Forschungsinstitut führende Wissenschaftler sowie Akteure aus allen Sparten der Gesellschaft zusammenbringen, um Fragen in den Bereichen Internet Innovation, Internet Regulierung, Informations- und Medienrecht sowie Fragen des Verfassungsrechts im Internet zu erörtern und zu erforschen.

Wer Interesse hat, sich intensiver mit den hier angesprochenen Schwerpunkten und ihren Protagonisten zu beschäftigen, dem seien ihre Ausführungen auf der Webseite:

https://sites.google.com/a/internetundgesellschaft.de/betasite/forschungsbereiche#innovation

anempfohlen.

Wer sich darüber hinaus in diese Arbeit einbringen will, möge die nachfolgend publizierten Zeilen studieren ...

Wir möchten aber mehr tun als nur informieren. Allen Interessierten geben wir von Anfang an die Möglichkeit, Ideen und Expertise in die Entwicklung des Instituts einzubringen. Dafür haben wir zum einen ein Formular bereitgestellt, in dem Sie Ihr Interesse ausdrücken können, sich im Institut einzubringen. Zum Anderen haben wir einen Google Moderator aufgesetzt, mit dessen Hilfe Sie thematische und organisatorische Vorschläge einbringen und bewerten können.

... und sich über diesen LINK zu einer eigenen Kooperationsanfrage aufraffen. [1]


PS.

Einen Tag nach dieser Ankündigung wird dieses Thema von Konstantin Zurawski in seiner Webschau auf der Internetseite von DRadioWissen ausführlich anhand der ersten Reaktionen aus der "Netzwelt" besprochen.

Ein guter Anlass um einmal in den Ministerien nachzufragen wie sie sich zu der Aussage eines Philipp Banse stellen, der da sagt:

"4,5 Millionen Euro [für drei Jahre - WS.], um die Auswirkungen des Internets auf unsere Gesellschaft zu erforschen? Natürlich wäre das Geld zu beschaffen gewesen – wenn die deutsche Wissenschaftsgemeinde gewollt hätte. Aber ihr ist das Internet nicht wichtig genug."

PPS.

Hier als Transkription die Ausführungen von Eric Schmidt an der Humboldt University zu Berlin vom 16. Februar 2011, so wie sie am 22. Februar 2011 auf YouTube samt Mitschnitt hochgeladen wurden.

0:07
SCHMIDT: I think of this as the oldest and most renowned university in Berlin. I can

1:21
think of no better place to talk about the kinds of things that we want to talk about

1:24
in Germany and Berlin than what we’re doing right now. The—you know, it’s interesting

1:30
if you think about Germany, think of Germany as the innovation center, maybe one of the

1:35
great innovation centers of the world. You have more patents than anybody else. Think

1:40
about the German success, the German miracle that exists today; the fact that you’re powering

1:48
much of Europe and much of the world recovery, and in particular, much of the—much of the

1:53
growth of Asia and so forth is coming from German engineering and German manufacturing.

1:57
So we have a long history of innovation, of accomplishment, and of success that all of

2:03
you—that all of you can be very proud of. And I think most interesting is that as college

2:08
graduates, graduate students, researchers, as best I can tell, you have the highest probability

2:13
of getting a good job of anywhere around in the world because of the success of the country

2:17
around you which I think is a testament to everyone here. So, I wanted to make a couple—I wanted to sort

2:26
of start—I wanted to start with a couple of—a couple announcements. And I think the

2:30
first is that, we’re—Google, of course, is doing very well and we’re going to add more

2:35
than a thousand people in Europe this year; including hundreds of people in our Hamburg

2:40
sales office and our Munich engineering center, and some of the programs I’m going to talk

2:44
about here in Berlin. So we are investing big time, if you will. We intend to make sure—we

2:51
want to reflect the culture and the heritage and the accomplishments of Europe and, in

2:56
particular, of Germany, and we want to invest here which I’m very happy to say it’s important.

3:01
Another thing that we’ve announced today—it’s not... Another thing we’re announcing—I’m

3:06
sure you can’t actually hear it. Maybe we should just use something—you want to try

3:12
a different... >> Another one.

3:14
>> SCHMIDT: Try different one? >> Just go on.

3:20
>> SCHMIDT: Okay. We’ll try a different solution. >> Take this one.

3:28
>> SCHMIDT: Perfect. Another thing that we’re doing is actually announcing the creation

3:34
of a whole Internet and society research. And the idea—should I go over here? Yes?

3:53
Not a German microphone. Okay. We’ll figure it out. Today, we’re announcing an Internet

4:04
and research institute. One of the things that—in spending sometime thinking about

4:11
Germany, the German culture, German academic culture, you have a long history of academic

4:17
debate and that history, I think, is pretty fundamental to the way your society has worked

4:22
pretty well. We want to participate in that. We want to actually fund the center, literally

4:27
to the tune of millions of euros to discuss and debate the evolution of the Web, the Internet,

4:35
public society, public debate and so forth. And I think that will make the Web stronger.

4:40
I think it will make the German understanding of what’s happening stronger and I think it

4:43
will make Google stronger by being a participant along with all of the other Internet companies.

4:47
I’m pretty, pretty, pretty, pretty, pretty excited about that. We’ll just have these—we’ll

4:55
have these—we’ll have these little gaps. So... Here we go. Should we try a different

5:09
one? Okay. We’re going to try... >> I guess this one is with a cable and that’s...

5:15
>> SCHMIDT: No, I think it’s the cable. Let’s see if we can shake the cable.

5:19
>> It’s more secure. >> SCHMIDT: More secure?

5:21
>> That’s it. >> SCHMIDT: Yes. This is called wireless interception.

5:23
This is—this is the benefit of wired versus wireless. Okay. That’s what I would tell you

5:31
in any case. And then the third thing we’re going to do is we’re going to announce a 10,000

5:37
small business initiative to try to make sure that small businesses here in Germany can

5:42
take advantage of the Internet. I like that idea because we all understand that the job

5:48
creation engine is ultimately from small businesses. And it’s still the case that many small businesses

5:53
are not fully using the Internet for eCommerce and things like that. We have a program that

5:58
we’re rolling out here in Germany to do precisely that. And then, perhaps the most important

6:03
thing I wanted to talk about is an announcement of a product called One Pass. We have been

6:09
worried as many people have—has been that it’s been very difficult to monetize, to sell,

6:16
to make money from newspapers. What’s happened, of course, is the Internet has come along,

6:22
the Internet is perceived as free and people who are working very hard to produce very

6:27
high quality have not been able to get paid properly. We’ve tried various approaches;

6:32
so advertising and so forth, and they don’t completely work. They certainly don’t work

6:37
well enough to provide a robust infrastructure, if you will, for comment, for research, especially

6:44
for investigative research. This is not a problem in Germany. This is a problem everywhere

6:49
in the world. It’s a problem in the United States. It’s a problem all throughout Europe.

6:52
It’s a problem in Asia. And so, Google developed a product which we call One Pass and it’s

6:58
actually a technology that allows the publisher to decide to charge or give things away for

7:05
free. If you want to give things for free, that’s great. If you want to charge—if you

7:09
want to charge for the information, you can charge for it on a one-time basis or on a

7:14
subscription basis. Now you say, "Well, wouldn’t it be great that everything be free?" Well,

7:17
of course, I love free too. But the fact of the matter is there are things which are very

7:21
much worth paying for and we’ve learned that people will pay for them for the same reasons

7:25
that they’ll pay for newspapers and magazines, and so forth and so on. And so we built a

7:30
system and—that we’re, in fact, launching here globally from Germany, here in Berlin

7:36
for the first time that allows you to do this for all of the content that we care about;

7:40
that literally, anything that people would like to charge for, give it a go. Give it

7:45
a try. And what’s interesting is it works with existing print publications. So if you

7:50
already have a newspaper, a newspaper is very important, you can add this to your newspaper

7:56
subscription approach and everything works. And more importantly, the publisher is the

8:01
merchant of record. We don’t keep that information. We don’t prevent you from knowing, if you’re

8:06
a publisher, who your customers are like some other people. So, all of a sudden, right,

8:10
we’ve got a very different approach, very publisher-friendly approach, and we basically

8:15
don’t make any money on this. We do it as a cost basis. We make our money on advertising,

8:20
of course, so don’t worry about us. The most important thing—the most important thing

8:25
is to get money to the people who are producing the high quality content because the high

8:29
quality content is what you’re going to the Web and what you’re going to your mobile devices

8:33
for in the first place. What I’m particularly pleased about is to say that there are three

8:38
significant publishers here in Germany who are participating and, in fact, announcing

8:42
this with me. They are Axel Springer, Focus, and Stern, some of the major magazines and

8:47
newspapers here and publishers in all of Germany and for the global—in fact, the European

8:51
world. So thank you so much for the three of you for helping us work so hard to do it.

8:55
And they’re right here in front of me, so thank you. So with that as sort of an opening, I wanted

9:08
to spend a few minutes—what I’d like to do is talk a little bit about the future and

9:11
then take your comments or questions. And I’d like to start with the observation that

9:17
people are confused about the Internet. They somehow think that something bad is happening

9:25
when, in fact, I think something extraordinarily good is happening. And when I look back at

9:31
what has happened in the last decade, the tremendous number of this and that and all

9:36
of the inventions, I see a very, very good set of accomplishments, and I’m very proud

9:41
of having been part of Google during that period. And again, looking forward in the

9:44
next decade of mine at Google, it’s going to happen even faster. Even more things are

9:50
going to be happening because of the scale and the platforms that we have now articulated.

9:55
And what’s interesting is people are beginning to understand the pervasiveness of this. Here’s

9:59
an example. This is a quote from Joseph Scarborough who’s a columnist. Who is—he talks about

10:04
a world where computers offer a cold substitute to human contact. He’s a negative, negative

10:12
writer on this. "The technology is winning the battle against actual human contact."

10:19
And of course, he writes very well and I think he’s completely wrong. That, in fact, the

10:24
structure of computers is going to allow us to spend more time with each other and do

10:29
more of the things that we care about for precisely the reasons that I’m going articulate

10:33
for you. That we’ll be able to spend more time with the people that we care about to

10:39
explore new places and to have sort of make the world a better place. The technology exists

10:43
to serve us and not the other way around. So there are many, many examples of this.

10:50
A most recent example, everybody knows that in the last few weeks, there has been an extraordinary

10:57
revolution in Egypt. And during the revolution, the government did something that was unprecedented.

11:04
They tried to turn off the Internet. Big mistake. Don’t do that. And many, many people complained.

11:16
One of the things that we, at Google, did working with a number of our friends including

11:20
Twitter, is we put together a Speak-to-Tweet program. So that if you couldn’t get on the

11:24
Internet, you could call on the phone and you could say what you wanted tweeted and

11:29
we would tweet it out for the whole world to hear. Okay? Simple, easy to do. And I want

11:38
to—what’s interesting about this is this is not some idea that the senior executives

11:42
at Google had. And we didn’t sort of say, "People just did it. It was just their idea.

11:47
They just said, ’Let’s try this.’" And it’s an example of the power of our culture and

11:52
the power that—the power freedom and the power to be heard is so pervasive. What’s

11:59
interesting, by the way, is that particular tool was built by two engineers in one weekend.

12:03
That’s power. That’s impact. And of course, everybody knows what’s going on now. Hopefully,

12:10
it will transition to a much better—to a much better and more peaceful—more peaceful

12:13
lifestyle for all of the Egyptians. What’s interesting about transparency—and Europeans

12:20
understand this particularly well. The European Union has made millions of documents available

12:26
to the public through something called the Open Data Network. And again, you can now

12:29
search and try to understand what they’re up to. And if you don’t like it, you can criticize

12:34
them and furthermore, you can see if they tend to respond to your criticism or not,

12:39
right? But transparency gives you that power as a citizen. It’s very fundamental to how

12:44
democracy, at least in our view, work. Another example. This is another very interesting

12:49
trend. There’s a company called Ushahidi. It’s a website and they started off monitoring

12:56
things going on in the Kenyan elections; it’s 2008. Very, very clever people. And what they

13:02
do is they track what happens and they crowdsource the results. So they don’t rely on what they

13:07
see, they ask everyone; "You tell us what’s happening over here, what’s happening over

13:11
here, what’s happening over here." This principle of crowdsourcing gives us another way of seeing

13:17
what’s happening in the world that we could never do before: real time modern reporting.

13:23
So we did this with—in a different context in the 2010 Haitian earthquake; a terrible,

13:28
terrible thing. And using crowdsourcing information, we could figure out where people were hurt,

13:34
where people were in trouble, how to get them to the right medical care very, very quickly.

13:38
It’s being done right now with the famous actor, George Clooney, in a project in South

13:44
Sudan where the Sudanese government has said the following things are true. And by virtue

13:49
of using satellite monitoring and using crowdsourcing information from people on the ground, you’d

13:55
be amazed that perhaps what the government is saying is not exactly what they’re doing

13:59
with their military troops. What a shock, right? So again, the transparency, the power

14:06
of the internet and what you can do really does change everything. I’ll give you another

14:10
example. One of my favorite examples. One of our engineers is color blind. So he wrote

14:17
over a week an application which, using Android, changed the colors so that if you’re color

14:23
blind, you can see the colors the way you’re supposed to see them by looking through the

14:28
camera, right? A very, very simple idea, but one which makes everybody who cares about

14:33
that or needs that problems; life is infinitely better. So what is happening here? Why is

14:39
this happening so fast? I guess this is one of the questions. It’s because everything

14:44
is happening faster now. The growth of the mobile web, mobility and the things we’re

14:49
talking about is occurring eight times faster than the same growth that occurred in the

14:55
early ’90s on the original web. So not only is it bigger, it’s also faster. Interesting.

15:00
A few months ago, I did a calculation and predicted that smartphones would surpass PC

15:08
sales within two years. I was so wrong that we—that smartphones surpassed PC sales last

15:17
week. So much for me. It’s happening faster and faster and faster. Now why is this? Because

15:24
the utility is so great and there are many, many examples. The smartphone shipments grew

15:29
in the fourth quarter of 2010, 89% year over year. And here in Europe smartphone market,

15:38
you were the most mature smartphone markets. The Europeans are always ahead of everybody

15:48
else—always ahead of everybody else. And smartphones continue to do so. What’s interesting

15:54
now is that for many, many people in the world, smartphones is the only way to get online.

16:00
An interesting statistic is that more than half of African and South Asian subscribers,

16:07
the internet—the only way to get to the internet is on their smartphones. And so imagine you’re

16:11
a person who lives in a relatively poor village, you’re very intelligent, but you don’t have

16:16
a lot of information, you don’t have textbooks and so forth, how important is your phone?

16:20
You think your phone is pretty important now, imagine how important your phone is to them

16:25
on a 24-hour basis everyday. Now what’s interesting now, of course, is everything is connected.

16:30
So when you see a music device, if the music device is not connected to the web, not very

16:36
useful, because all your music is on the web as well as on your sort of device. Take every

16:41
device you have and imagine connecting it to something; connected to the web, connected

16:47
to Wi-Fi on and on. That’s all happening in the—in the next few years. And all of these

16:52
are occurring because of the pervasive data connectivity that we’re all experiencing.

16:57
There’s a standard called LTE. LTE, again, quite a bit developed here in Germany. Germany

17:06
is the leader in LTE deployment. Many people within Germany have access to 50 megabits

17:11
or higher, so I’m very, very jealous. You’re seeing this in other countries. Australia,

17:17
a country which has always been far away, has decided that 93% of the people in the

17:25
country by 2018 should have a hundred megabits or greater. It’s become a public policy under

17:30
the new prime minister. The other 7% will have to make do with 50 megabits. The European

17:36
data initiative, the European leaders that you have in Brussels have announced that it

17:41
is a right, or a goal, or whatever you want to do it, that by 2020 at least half of Europeans

17:47
will have access to 100 megabits or greater in terms of connectivity. At 100 megabits,

17:53
the distinctions between television and radio and HD television and all those things, they

17:59
all go away. It all just becomes content on the same pipe or whether it’s your tablet,

18:05
your mobile phone, your television or whatever. So in one generation, all of the distinctions,

18:10
all the differences that we’ve grown up with go away because of the pervasive nature and

18:15
all of this technology. What’s interesting is that 98% of all the world’s mobile providers

18:20
now offer at least one megabit. So I give you statistic after statistic to say that

18:26
this is a phenomena that touches all humans; not just Germans, not just Americans, not

18:32
just Europeans, not just the Asians, and it has a lot of implications. One of the things

18:37
that I’m most interested is what will all these people do when they get online? We’ll

18:41
be—will they behave the same as we do, or will they behave in some different way? I
18:45
don’t know. Now what’s interesting about this phenomena is you have the phone phenomena,

18:50
which I’ve already talked about, and you have the network phenomena, and you have one more;

18:55
you have cloud computing. And cloud computing is the term that’s used for these large server

19:00
farms, of which Google has many, and these servers are used to do interesting things.

19:06
So, typical example; when I was last here in Berlin in September, we actually showed

19:11
for the first time, I believe, in history phone-to-phone translation from English to

19:17
German to English. And we had Khai who’s here in—where he’s over there talking in German

19:25
to his friend who is—in English, and they were trying to buy shoes. And one would speak

19:31
in English into the phone and then the answer would come out in German, and the German would

19:36
speak in German and the answer would come out in English. And it was good enough. Now

19:39
you sit there and you go, "Okay, that’s pretty good. How did they do that?" The language

19:45
is translated into bits, the bits are shipped over the network, the computers translate

19:50
the bits into, essentially, text. The text is translated from one language to another,

19:56
and then from the other language’s text is turned into a voice sensitizer and comes out

20:01
as German all in a hundredth of a second. But most importantly, it will eventually work

20:08
for 100 hundred languages by 100 hundred languages. So it will be possible to literally speak

20:14
to pretty much anybody in the world. You may have to wait for them to finish and not interrupt

20:19
them because the translation takes a—takes a tenth of a second. But the fact of the matter

20:23
is we dreamed of this and now this technology is possible. Another example. You can say—you

20:30
could say it today, you can say it to—in Android, you can say, "How do I get to Museum

20:35
Island?" And it would—it would say right back, you know, in German. It would translate

20:38
it for you and then you could play that to the local policeman who’s busy asking you

20:42
why you’re lost, which happens to me. Or you could say—you could take your—take your

20:49
menu and sort of—sort of point your phone at the menu, right, in German and it will

20:55
translate it into English if you’re me and you don’t speak good enough German to actually

20:57
understand what the menu is all about and discover that you’re ordering a calf’s liver,

20:59
you know, or something exciting. There are a lots and lots and lots of examples, other

21:07
examples. Were digitizing the 2,000 year-old Dead Sea Scrolls so that you could see them

21:13
without having to go visit the Dead Sea. When I go to my laptop, I can visit the Ruins of

21:19
Pompeii. I mean, on and on, and on, and on. I can go—we have historical imagery from

21:25
Berlin from roughly 1945 on. If you take your satellite photo, you can actually dial back

21:30
in time to see the recovery and rebuilding of your beautiful city and see what it was

21:35
like over and over again and on your mobile phone. Pretty interesting. So, this concept

21:42
that I’m talking about is not a new concept. Bill Gates talked about it in 1990. He said

21:47
that, "Information is at your fingertips, all of the information that somebody might

21:51
be interested in including information that they can’t even get to today." Why did it

22:02
take all of us 21 years to get to this point? We’ve been working on it a long time. Well,

22:07
partly, we needed the underlying networks to get faster. We needed the chips to get

22:11
faster. We needed the software architecture to get faster, and we needed the markets to

22:15
develop, and I want to highlight that for a minute. How does Google play into this?

22:22
Speaking on behalf of Google, well, in many ways, a new definition of Google for you is

22:28
that Google uses technology to try to do good things for the world and that we’re trying

22:32
to apply this to make the world a better place and we make money along the way, of course.

22:36
And when I think about it, the most important thing that you have is time. And as you get

22:42
older, you appreciate this even more. Time is everything. And so we focus a lot on getting

22:48
your time back. What we want to do is get you the answer fast, get you to where you

22:52
want to go fast. We don’t want you to spend a lot of time on Google; we want to get you

22:56
to somewhere else and come back, and back, and back to do it. So in Search, for example,

23:02
we want you to get you the questions and answers that you care about right now. Well, what’s

23:08
an example? We did—well, there are plenty of examples. We did this thing called Instant

23:12
Search where we saved a couple of seconds on people search. You know, we showed you

23:16
the answers as you were typing. We rolled that out globally in the last few months.

23:21
All of a sudden, a couple of seconds times a billion people is an awful lot time saved

23:25
so people can do other things and maybe they’ll just do more searches. But we hope—what they

23:30
hope we’ll do is they’ll also find better answers and learn more about the world. Another

23:36
example, we can make search more personal. Now this is with your permission, and I say

23:41
with your permission and I really mean it. If you authorize us, we can search maybe your

23:46
history, maybe where you are, maybe you’ll—with your permission, let our—let you know who

23:52
your friends are. Maybe we can—we’ll search your email as well and show you the sum of

23:56
the answers that you care about in a way that you’ll never be able to do on your own. Pretty

24:01
interesting. Even better. We call this autonomous search. Your phone, by the way, knows where

24:06
you are. So, here I am in Berlin. I like history, all right. I’m walking down the street. Why

24:12
is the phone not working for me? It’s not doing anything else, it’s just sitting there.

24:16
So, why do we instead have the phone go and tell me what the history of each of the buildings

24:23
is as I’m walking by, or the equivalent thing that I care about since it knows a little

24:27
bit about me? There, the search is not just the text but really the place. And if it knows

24:35
what I care about and it knows where I am, it could be generating things that I might

24:38
be interested in. Pretty interesting idea. So, all of a sudden, search becomes autonomous,

24:46
personal and very powerful. I mean, in my case, I happen to like planes and so, it turns

24:50
out that you have, you know, there’s a—there’s literally a museum down the street here that

24:55
has a particularly interesting jet called the Hansa Jet which I was interested in learning

24:59
about and a particular Starfighter that’s on display, right? So, these are the sorts

25:03
of things that I care about. You would care about something else. Search is also moving

25:08
from understanding text to meaning. So, when you say, for example, "What’s the weather

25:13
like?" Do you mean, "Should I wear a raincoat?" Or are you saying, "Should I wear—should

25:22
I—should I water the plants?" So, all of a sudden, you have two choices and we can

25:27
help disambiguate that. Now, in the mobile area, which I highlighted a lot, the scale

25:33
of Mobile is so large that it’s hard to describe how much is going to happen over the next

25:41
year. If I reused setting out on what I was doing, I would focus on mobile first because

25:46
mobile is where all the new applications will be. It’s where all the—all the new and interesting

25:50
applications, solutions and creativity will be applied will be in mobile of one kind or

25:56
another. So, for example, Android, which is our version of the operating system freely

26:00
available to operators, sells or is activated more than 300,000 per day. Again, that number

26:06
is growing very rapidly and we have roughly 27 OEMs, 170 compatible devices today, 169

26:14
carriers and 96 countries. The number of searches from Android searches in our world grew by

26:20
a factor of 10 in the last year. And we give the operating system away and, of course,

26:24
the way we make money is through advertising. And so, trust me, it’s a good business deal

26:29
for us to do this. But from your perspective, having that broad platform enables you to

26:34
build applications that other people would never have thought of; new discoveries, things

26:38
that I would never even think of. We have a browser called Chrome and I’m going to talk

26:44
about this to highlight another development in the web; it’s called HTML5. There are people

26:49
here who have working on HTML5, so you know the technical details as well. For those of

26:55
you that don’t—that don’t, HTML5 is a new standard for the web which will allow you

26:58
to build applications like those that you find on a personal computer but web-based

27:03
but with the same power and the speed and the graphics that you have on the web—that

27:08
you have on PCs. So, all of a sudden, now, you’re going to have these mobile devices

27:12
which are ubiquitous with their location and so forth and you’re going to have finally

27:18
a powerful web architecture, if you will, a web operating system for which you could

27:22
buy—build applications. The sum of the two plus cloud computing is the necessary platform

27:29
to build everything above it, and we at Google and everybody else are also pushing very hard

27:34
on this. And my suspicion is that the next interesting startups, the next interesting

27:39
new companies here in Berlin and Germany and Munich and so forth and the other technical

27:43
centers will all be based on this underlying technology that’s rolling out literally right

27:48
now. What’s interesting—and I don’t talk about this too much unless you’re interested

27:53
in it—is there’s another complete component to what we’re doing which is making money

27:59
for the developers, making plenty for the publishers. And we already talked about the

28:03
Newspass but ultimately, people have to be paid. You have to pay their salaries. You

28:08
have to pay for the data centers. You have to come up with some way of making money.

28:12
And applications developers understand this and indeed Google is one of the companies

28:16
that provides a lot of revenue to support mobile applications through some acquisitions

28:19
that we did. But the core message here is that, for example, YouTube, now 35 hours of

28:27
video uploaded every minute into YouTube; we’ve also now developed advertising tools

28:34
and other tools that will monetize YouTube. So, now, we’re getting professional content

28:38
to come to something which was originally just user-generated and just free. We have

28:44
a similar—similarly good solution with respect to display soft—display ads. Display ads

28:49
are the ads that move a lot. And all of a sudden, you can now advertise with movies,

28:55
you could show little snippets, you could have highly personalized ads. So, where does

28:58
this is all go? For the same reason that search becomes more personal; advertising becomes

29:03
more personal. You’re much more likely to respond to an ad that’s targeted to you, it’s

29:10
about something that you care about, and that you’re ultimately likely to buy. So, if you’re

29:14
a person who lives in the city and you’ll never drive a car because you don’t like cars;

29:17
it makes no sense to show you a car ad. But if you’re in Germany, you’re going to want

29:22
a car ad. You get the idea, right? So, it depends. And we have the capability now of

29:27
targeting. Or if there’s—in the case of baby diapers, it makes no sense to show a baby

29:32
diapers ad in a household that has no baby diapered children. So, the fact of the matter

29:37
is we can target now and the more efficient the ad, the better the return on investment

29:42
of the ad, the more likely the advertiser is to achieve their objective which is ultimately

29:46
to make money. And that money is needed in order to drive the economic engine that we

29:50
all care about. So, the underlying point of all of this—and I’ll—and I’ll finish this

29:58
up by making some observations—is that this is the greatest disruption that we’ve seen

30:04
in perhaps 100 years. It’s on the level of, for example, the invention of electricity.

30:10
That’s how powerful this is. And it’s changing pretty much everything. It’s frustrating for

30:16
many people. There’s a quote from Joseph Schumpeter, "Capitalism inevitably leads to a creative

30:22
gale of destruct—of disruption." And we’ve replaced the economics of scarcity with the

30:31
economics of abundance. So, if you were in a business which relied on scarcity, your

30:35
business model is under attack. It’s a problem. And it’s a real problem and I’m not minimizing

30:40
it any way. And it’s sort of both terrifying and exciting. It’s terrifying because it has

30:50
to do with information and people care a lot about information. I mean, everybody does

30:55
and I learn—I know this more than anybody else because we’re constantly being criticized,

30:56
investigated, commented on, you know, so forth and so on because of the role that we play

31:03
and I do understand that. But it’s exciting because of its scale that somebody here in

31:08
the room in the next six months, 12 months could invent—could invent something that

31:13
would touch 100 million people. This was never possible before. But because of the pervasive

31:19
nature of the Internet and because of the pervasive, if you will, the technology reach

31:24
of the things that we’re talking about, it’s actually possible for you to do this. And

31:28
you see this in the success of new companies that are springing up left and right. So,

31:33
when we have these debates, the debates about privacy, the debates of security, the debates

31:41
of my identity, who has rights things; understand that these are debates that are really about

31:46
how society wants to approach this completely new technology. What norms, what roles, who

31:53
has—who has the power, who has the transparency, who gets to decide? And these are all part

31:58
of how society will organize it and we’ll obviously participate as best as we can. But
32:03
for me, when I look forward, I see a much, much more positive future as a result of all

32:12
of this. When I look over the next sort of near future, I see this coming together in

32:17
many, many ways that will affect all of us. It’s interesting that there’s a quote, again,

32:23
another quote from—this one is from Ray Kurzweil, "Our intuition about the future is very linear

32:28
but information technology grows exponentially." That’s why we’re always surprised. We’re always

32:33
surprised because of the compounding and I’m telling you, I’ve laid out the argument that

32:38
with the growth of mobile, the growth of cloud computing, the growth of these networks, you

32:42
have an exponential explosion of creativity, of change, of disruption, almost all positive

32:48
literally right in front of us. Now, why do I believe this? Well, to some degree, I have

32:53
the optimism of a computer scientist because I believe that information can help solve

32:57
a lot of problems and computer science is really about that. I think computer science

33:01
can help about global warming and terrorism and financial transparency because these are

33:06
information problems. And so, by applying some of these principles, some of these very,

33:11
very real problems in our society, we can actually get them fixed, right, and address

33:14
them in one way or the other. So, imagine a future now of all of this and we’re all

33:21
in this and it’s a pretty near future. I would start with the observation that you’ll never

33:26
forget anything. Not because you won’t forget anything but because your computer will remember

33:31
things for you. Again, with your permission, your computer will remember where you were.

33:35
Of course, it remembers all of your pictures already. And again, with your permission,

33:39
it will tell your friends what you’re up to and remember where they are too. So, I who

33:45
like history and like to travel and so forth, it will remember where I was and where I stayed

33:49
and whether I liked the hotel and so forth and so on. It will serve as my memory because

33:54
my memory is not perfect but the computer memory always is. Computers do what they do

34:00
well; humans do what we do well. Another example is I’m never lost anymore. When I was a boy

34:07
growing up in Europe, I got lost all the time. It was great fun. You know, you’d eventually

34:12
have to ask for directions or get a map. Here, it’s very hard to get lost. You actually have

34:16
to turn off your phone and you’d never turn off your phone especially when you’re lost,

34:20
right? So, you’re stuck. You can never get lost. In fact, you know, we can—we will know

34:26
we—because of GPS technology and others, we’ll know where you are down to the foot

34:30
or the meter or the centimeter, whatever measurement system you care about. The point is your phone

34:36
knows where you are and unless you turn it off, you can’t get lost. Another example.

34:43
People who love the Earth can love it more. All of us understand how important the Earth

34:48
is with the technology of Maps and Google Earth and the modeling that we’re doing and

34:54
so forth, you can now understand the dramatic changes that we are making to our planet,

34:59
some of which are irreversible; some of which are reversible. Using get—satellite technology

35:05
and other dynamic things, Google recently announced something called Google Earth Engine

35:08
which is a program—programmable platform by which you can actually model the changes

35:12
that are being done to the Earth. You can see the direct consequences of the changes

35:17
that we’re bringing on, the good ones and the bad ones, whether it’s climate change

35:21
or water change or food change or what have you. To me, these are fundamental because

35:26
it’s the only planet we’ve got. You can obviously have all the world’s information at your fingertips

35:31
and you could do it in any language because of the dynamic translation that I talked about.

35:36
And so, nowadays, everybody speaks German, everybody speaks English, everybody speaks

35:41
Farsi, everybody speaks the language that they care about. And perhaps more importantly,

35:49
we can help you decide what to pay attention to. I don’t know about you but my problem

35:54
is I’ve got so much coming in, I can’t keep up with it. All right, in between email and

35:59
phone messages and texts and Twitters and all of the status updates on Facebook and

36:05
all of the information that I see in my normal web use, I don’t know how to spend my time

36:09
anymore. I used to, by the way. I used to live in a linear world. Now, I live in a scattered

36:13
world. So, all of a sudden now, computers can help me because Google and other companies

36:19
can help prioritize that using modern computer science technology to figure out what’s the

36:23
most important thing for me to think about right now, okay? And another thing is you’re

36:27
never lonely. There’s always somebody to talk to, and even if you’re traveling and by yourself,

36:32
your friends are literally one text away or a video conference away especially when you’re

36:38
in a different time zone and you’re missing them or you’re missing your family or whatever

36:42
it is. The fact of the matter is this is a pretty big change. Another example, you’re

36:48
never bored, right? Now, the problem is not boredom, but in fact, you have too many things

36:53
to do and computers can help you, again, knowing who you care about, knowing your taste, can

36:59
help suggest things. We have people now on YouTube who say, "Okay, I’ll start here and

37:04
I’ll just keep watching." And they keep watching and watching and watching and we keep selecting

37:08
things that we are pretty sure they like. And somehow, we know that they like it because

37:12
they keep watching it. So, all of a sudden, the application of computers science and this

37:17
huge amount of information allows the computer to make your life even more entertaining and

37:21
so forth. So you’re never bored. You know, we used to waste time watching television.

37:26
Now, you can waste time watching the internet, you know. But the fact of the matter is you’re

37:31
not bored, you’re not lonely, you’re never lost, right? It’s a very, very big change.

37:37
Now, at—here at a university, I should say, that we’re never out of ideas. If I were a

37:43
student today, I would be so overwhelmed by the conversations around me that every single

37:49
thing that we talk about here at Humboldt University is something I’d say, I’d like

37:54
to learn more, I’d like to hear more about this, or I’d like to confirm what the professor

37:58
said because I didn’t really quite believe it, or I didn’t like what my friend said,

38:02
or I’m writing my paper, and so forth. But if you’re an intellectual and you’re a person

38:04
who cares about things, you could care about them deeply and you’ll fill your head so much,

38:09
it’ll be a headache, which I think is wonderful from the standpoint of learning. I’m very,

38:13
very excited and proud of that. Here we are in the car capital of the world; it seems

38:19
to me that cars should probably drive themselves. I mean, after all, a car will drive itself

38:26
better than you will when you’re have too much to drink. It seems obvious. So, we’re

38:31
building, in fact, automatic navigation for cars using satellites and other local technologies.

38:34
So that literally, you just have to press the button and here you are and you go and

38:39
then the only problem we have with our cars is that it drives exactly at the speed limit.

38:45
We’re working on that problem. But you get the idea. If I talk about this—to finish

38:52
up, put this in context. The thing that I’m proudest of this vision of this new world

39:01
is it’s a vision that touches every human being. Historically, information services,

39:08
this kind of thing we’re talking about today, access to knowledge, access to universities;

39:13
historically, that service, if you will, has been only available to an elite, the elite,

39:23
the rich, the power, the educated. But what I’m proudest of all of what we’re doing is

39:30
that a few billion people will be entering the world’s conversation in the next three

39:35
or four years. And for them, they’ll have the same footing or nearly the same footing

39:41
as all of us who are part of the top part of the world, the most privileged, the most

39:46
educated, the elites of the world. The fact that this technology is for everyone is, I

39:53
think, perhaps the most important message of all about technology, that you can reach

39:57
every human because we’re all the same and we all are born with the same potential. And

40:01
I’m proud to say that the internet is one of the great levelers of society and it gives

40:06
opportunity for people who would never have had any opportunity before. But because of

40:11
it, whether it’s a small village or in a strange language or so forth, they can reach their

40:16
full potential. So, thank you so much for letting me talk here. I’m looking forward

40:20
to your questions and thank you so much as well. Thank you
.

Anmerkungen

[1Diese Chance wurde am 20. Juli 2011 mit dem folgenden Text wahrgenommen:

Der Begriff des "chaningeers" wurde mir von meinen US-amerikanischen Kollegen und Freunden im Jahr 2010 im Rahmen einer privaten Veranstaltung in Stanford verliehen, nachdem ich mich fast ein Jahrzehnt mit dem Paradigmenwechsel des Kinos von der analogen in die digitale Welt beschäftigt hatte (DCI, SMPTE, DCS).

Vergleichbar Aufgaben habe ich zuvor schon in allen anderen relevanten Medienbereichen ausgeführt - von der Einführung von ISDN bei den europäischen Telkos bis hin zum Start von DVB-T in Berlin, dann in der BRD und jetzt auch in den USA.

Bis Mitte dieses Jahres arbeite ich im Auftrag des BMWI als Gutachter für das 3D-Prime-Projekt und werde mich nach Abschluss dieser Arbeit neuen Aufgabenstellungen zuwenden können.

Mein Thema ist mit der Fragestellung verbunden, welche neuen Paradigmen n a c h der Digitalisierung an die Stelle der Referenzlinien aus der Zeit der analogen Welt treten werden.

Ich habe mich in diesem Bereich sowohl in Forschung und Lehre, aber eben auch in der Zusammenarbeit mit der Wirtschaft international qualifizieren können und möchte gerne herausfinden, ob und ggf. wie ein Dialog mit Ihnen für beide Seiten von Nutzen sein kann.

C’est tout: Wenn Sie an einem solchen Dialog Interesse haben, lassen Sie es mich wissen und fragen Sie gezielt nach.

Vielen Dank!

[gez.] Wolf Siegert


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